Session PapersPosterRound TableGeneral Pool

Service-learning as an educational strategy for advancing citizenship, conscientization and civic agency: A capability approach lens

Ntimi Mtawa
University of the Free State, South Africa

There are four decades worth of cross-contextual research that supports Service-learning (SL) as effective pedagogical practice in universities in the Global North. However, relatively little is explored regarding its potential to advance citizenship (Nussbaum, 2010;1997;McCowan, 2012;Annette, 2005), conscientization (Cipolle, 2010) and civic agency (Walker and McLean, 2013) among students and in the broader society, especially in the African context. Using the capability approach (CA) as developed by Amartya Sen, Martha Nussbaum and others, this article draws attention to the potential ways in which SL impacts students in the direction of the above-mentioned values. The paper uses qualitative data gathered through interviews with 16 lecturers and 4 focus groups with 48 students in two faculties from the case of one South African university. These results were analysed using core constructs of CA to determine how SL impacts students' citizenship, conscientization and civic agency. The findings indicate that students involved in SL develop capabilities and capacities that cut across issues of citizenship, conscientization and civic agency, which are fundamental for flourishing individual and wider society. These capabilities and capacities include inter alia., affiliation, informed vison, social and collective struggle, empathy and caring, dealing with diversity, agency and aspiration for change in communities. These values are likely to be fostered because SL offers students opportunities to interact among and between each other, engage with people in need and encounter complex issues in communities. The study is significant because it contributes to the search for an educational practice that can enable universities to foster citizenship, conscientization and civic agency. These are critical issues that need to be cultivated among students in an increasingly connected, complex and unequal world.

Capacity Development and Organisational Change in Support of Conflict Sensitive Education

Kelsey Shanks
University of Exeter, UK

Education was once considered a neutral, technical activity;yet, over the past decade, the international education agenda has shifted in line with the wider 'do no harm' debate to recognize education's potential influence over spheres of security, governance and economics. With 1in3 of the world's 121 million out-of-school children living in fragile or conflict-affected situations (GPE,2016), the relationship between education and conflict has received targeted efforts. Yet, despite academic and practitioner focus, Reisman and Janke (2015) stress that conflict-sensitivity still needs to be "better understood and adopted by all partners." This paper explores the necessary processes required to 'institutionalise' conflict-sensitive practices within education-focused humanitarian organisations, highlighting key obstacles and opportunities.

Global policy agendas and the Education Sustainable Development Goal: Perspectives from sub-Saharan African research and researchers

Rafael Mitchell
REAL Centre, Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, UK

Pauline Rose, REAL Centre, Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge

African education research is often 'overlooked and undervalued' in global policy debates (Maclure 2006). This paper reports on a project to catalogue education research from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) for the purpose of raising its visibility and strengthening the evidence base for national, regional and global policy and practice. The paper combines large-scale bibliometric analysis of education research outputs from 48 countries in SSA with a qualitative study of the priorities of African researchers and policy actors. The study highlights the perspectives of African research and researchers with respect to informing the Education Sustainable Development Goal. Attention is given to areas of convergence and tension between global policy agendas and African researchers' priorities for knowledge production.

The quantitative analysis draws from structured searches of academic and grey literature databases, together with a process of expert consultation. The search sought to identify social science research outputs with implications for education policy and practice conducted by researchers in SSA over the period 2007-2017. Patterns and trends are identified regarding publication type, thematic foci, research methods, funding, and citations. The qualitative component derives from semi-structured interviews with African researchers and a range of non-academic stakeholders, including representatives of government agencies and NGOs. Thematic analysis was informed by previous studies of evidence use in education policy-making (Brown 2014).

The paper considers lessons for the identification of research topics, research design and dissemination to enhance the visibility of African research in national and global policy debates. It further aims to support future research partnerships to inform the SDGs which are grounded in African knowledge and expertise.

References

Brown, C., 2014. Advancing policy makers' expertise in evidence-use: A new approach to enhancing the role research can have in aiding educational policy development. Journal of Educational Change 15, 19–36.

Maclure, R., 2006. No Longer Overlooked and Undervalued? The Evolving Dynamics of Endogenous Educational Research in Sub-Saharan Africa. Harvard Educational Review 76, 80–109.

Analyzing the Impact of USAID Led Teacher Education Reforms on the Epistemology and Tolerance level on prospective teachers in Pakistan

Irfan Ahmed Rind
Sukkur IBA University, Pakistan

Extremism in Pakistan has been a major concern as it links to terrorism and religious fundamentalism. Historically, fundamentalist discourse promoted religious authority and fixity of knowledge, which was used by military dictators to legitimize their military coups. Politically motivated religious and government schools target young venerable minds;systematically shape their epistemology to the fixity of knowledge;provide them the knowledge that aligns with their political agendas, and encouraged them to violently react on anything or anyone that contradicts their fix knowledge. Teachers play a vital role in shaping students' epistemology by transmitting the politically informed knowledge which is embedded in curricula. The effective shaping of students' epistemology also depends on teachers' epistemological beliefs, which they have developed during their teacher trainings and education.

Realizing the importance of teachers in challenging the extremist forces deeply embedded in social fabric of Pakistan, USAID has focused on reforming teacher education and spent around $75 million since 2009. Along with many other initiatives, the most significant is the replacement of old traditional teacher certificate courses with new four year B.Ed elementary and secondary degree programs for pre-service teachers. Although the USAID led teacher education reforms have been studied from different dimensions, i.e., aims & objectives of the reforms (Fazal, Khan, & Majoka, 2014) , teacher educators' perception of reforms (Reba & Inamullah, 2014), impact of reforms on social status of teachers (Khalid 2014), sustainability of reforms (USAID 2008), the implications of such reforms on extremism have not been studied yet. This study specifically focuses on understanding the philosophy that drives these reform initiatives, (2) locates it in policies, curriculum, instruction, and assessments of new B.Ed (Hons) elementary program , and (3) exams the extent to which the new B.Ed (Hons) elementary program shapes student teachers' epistemology, and their attitude towards the fixity of knowledge.

INGOs building education state capacity in Afghanistan, problems and prospects

Farzana Bardai
University of Sussex, England

Capacity development is viewed as a means to improve sustainable access to quality education in conflict and post conflict states. Capacity development is intended to supports government actors to be more effective in creating policies to improve education systems. INGO's (International Non-Governmental Organizations) play a crucial role in this regard, particularly in various ways including supporting formulation of policy, budgeting, building government capacity, as well as education provision. Much aid in conflict context is spent on supporting INGOs to develop state capacity to rebuild education systems. However, there is little research that grapples with "the security and development needs of the social, economic and political context" (Davies, 2009, p.6), in relation to education capacity development in conflict-affected countries.

In this context, the paper is based on research conducted for a doctoral study that focuses on the role and programs of INGOs working in the education sector intended to support the capacity development of government officials. This paper aligns itself to the BAICE's Education in conflict, crisis and times of uncertainty (Education, conflict and peace building) theme by focusing on the neglected topic of how INGOs support state capacity.

Using the theoretical work produced by Novelli et al (2014), Davies, (2009, 2011) and Rizvi et al, (2010), this paper provides an empirical analysis of the role of INGOs in the complex context of Afghanistan. The research utilizes a case study mix method approach, drawing data from interviews, questionnaires and documents. This paper argues that global and local actors influence the implementation of education capacity building programmes by INGOs in Afghanistan, and the effects can be seen when examining education policies. This paper contributes to the understanding of how capacity is developed by INGOs in conflict-affect countries, in a globalising context in which nation state autonomy is challenged.

Determinants of achievement in rural primary schools in Senegal

Ousmane Ndiaye, Yukiko Hirakawa
Hiroshima University, Japan

The crucial role of education as a key lever to a sustainable development and social justice is widely acknowledged in the International community. Especially, making students acquire basic literacy and numeracy is the minimum but crucial goal to be attained. How to attain this goal within limited educational resources is a common challenge in most developing countries.

This study used data obtained by tests and questionnaire from 835 Grade 5 students in 30 schools in a rural area in Senegal, namely Sedhiou Province. The target area was chosen as an area in which 100% gross enrolment had been achieved, while dropout rate was high.

The results of preliminary analysis clarified that many students in Grade 5 had not acquired basic literacy and numeracy. About a half of the students could not retrieve clearly stated information in a simple short sentence. In math, though 0% could do calculation in addition, the rates of right answer went down to less than 60% in subtraction and multiplication. The achievement gap among schools were very large. It was strongly suggested that subtraction, multiplication and division were not taught in some schools, as the rates of right answer were 20% or less. Using hierarchical linear regression analysis, the research tries to find out school and student factors that significantly influence the student achievement.

Determinants of elementary school students French and mathematics achievements in rural Burkina Faso

Issoufou Ouedraogo
Hiroshima university, Japan

Yukiko Hirakawa

Literacy and numeracy, as emphasized in the Declaration for Education For All (EFA) in 1990, are essential tools for learning. However, EFA Global Monitoring Report 2014 pointed out that many children leave schools without acquiring literacy and numeracy. In Burkina Faso, PASEC (Programme d'Analyse des Systèmes Educatifs de la Conférence des Ministres de l'Education) [Francophone Africa Educational Systems Analysis Program] revealed that about 40% of grade 6 students failed at acquiring basic skills in French and math necessary for life and for further studies, though the rate of students who reached grade 6 was only about 60%. The purpose of this longitudinal study is to find out factors influencing students achievements in rural Burkina Faso. Zondoma Province was purposively chosen as an area that had relatively high enrolment rate and low completion rate. Then, 30 schools and 967 students were chosen randomly. Questionnaires, school checklists, French and math tests were employed to collect data. French and math tests were developed based on PASEC tests and other tests used in other developing countries. The tentative results showed that there was a large difference among schools. A two level Hierarchical Linear Model will be used to clarify proportion of school variance and student variance, and school and students factors that significantly affect student achievement. The results will provide basis of discussion for quality improvement of elementary schools.

Key words: school achievements, primary school, Mathematics, French, Burkina Faso

Exploring student participation in primary school mathematics textbooks and classrooms in Delhi, India

Meghna Nag Chowdhuri
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

For more than a decade globally, and more recently in India, education policy has focused on how children participate in classrooms. This (re)imagination falls within a larger shift towards a more constructivist perspective, where "learning takes place through interactions" (NCERT, 2006, p. 17). Based on this, reformed textbooks have been developed, incorporating text that encourages student participation. However, what is often missing from the discourse is teacher's voice (Batra, 2005). Thus, despite the reformed textbooks, it is not understood whether such a change is realised in classrooms or (and) accepted by teachers. This paper focuses on the reformed primary-level mathematics textbooks to explore this link — nature of 'student participation' in the mathematics textbooks, compared to teachers views and practices. Mathematics is one of the most crucial subjects of primary schooling, and a key indicator of basic skills across the Southern context (ASER, 2016). Yet it continues to play the role of a gatekeeper in education, especially for those from under-privileged communities (Khan, 2015).

The data discussed, is part of a three-year-long project exploring the teacher-textbook relationship in primary government school classrooms in Delhi. The study was conducted in four schools, with a focus on 10 teachers. The data includes reform-based textbooks, 44 classroom observations, and 16 semi-structured interviews.

The textbook anticipates students' engagement in classrooms in primarily three ways: explanation tasks (oral and written), generation tasks (creating their own tasks), and construction tasks (creating physical materials). The paper argues that although a few of the teachers are starting to approach these ways of student engagement, especially those involving explanation;the construction and generation tasks are not as frequently seen. Further, teachers' understanding of how these tasks can be used meaningfully for mathematics learning is vague. These results have implications for teacher-training policies, textbook development and mathematics education research.

AFLA – Assessment for Learning in Africa: Improving Pedagogy and Assessment for Numeracy/Mathematics in Foundation Years

Osman Sadeck
Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT), South Africa

Yusuf Sayed ( University of Sussex and Cape Peninsula University of Technology)
Toyer Nakidien (Cape Peninsula University of Technology)
Anil Kanjee (Tshwane University of Technology)

This paper reports on the Western Cape component of the Assessment for Learning in Africa (AFLA) project that focuses on Assessment for Learning (AfL) in challenging contexts. The project is a collaborative project between Oxford University, Aga Khan University, Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) and Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT). The project aims to investigate how teachers can develop and sustain high quality AfL teaching practices towards enhancing the learning of mathematics. Although the evidence shows that formative assessment can improve attainment, questions remain regarding the implementation, replication and scaling-up of teacher assessment capacity development programmes.

The project is being conducted in challenging contexts in Tanzania (Aga Khan University), Gauteng (TUT) and Western Cape (CPUT). In the Western Cape, teachers at six poor rural primary schools in the Cape Winelands area were selected to participate in a two-year AfL programme. The programme comprises three components, viz. five workshop/ training sessions, classroom-based implementation and classroom-based support.

Towards the end of the first phase of the project, we have found that teachers are taking to the new AfL techniques and strategies and are implementing them but at varying levels of complexity. Some of the reasons for this are competing priorities of the teachers, language and context, and the perception that the programme is lumping 'extra work' on the teachers.

Also, in the Western Cape language, both in delivery and materials, play a role in the level of engagement of the teachers. The timing of the sessions is also a factor that needs to be addressed. Finally, initial indicators suggest that factors such as context crucially affect implementation levels.

Key Words: formative assessment;assessment for learning;learner engagement;professional development;teachers' practice.

Towards a more socially just university education in Zimbabwe: Looking at issues through an eclectic theoretical lens

Ishmael Jeko
Midlands State University, Zimbabwe

Quality education (SDG4) is catalytically connected to the attainment of all the other Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with social justice being regarded as a critical anchor value for structuring quality education systems. The 2030 sustainable development agenda is instrumentally leveraged on a socially just education system which guarantees access, inclusion, participation and recognition of all human beings so as to lead to generalized well-being. This new international thrust towards development presents an opportunity for countries in the global south to re-align their education systems with principles of social justice so that they can redirect themselves onto an inclusive and equitable development trajectories. Zimbabwe is one such country in the south which pursued an education reform agenda intended to redress persisting colonial injustices and inequalities, largely focusing on the primary and secondary education. However, not much has been done yet to deal with social injustice in university education, yet universities arguably play a critical role in developing and enhancing appropriate capabilities so that students can attain what their valued beings and doings. Employing an eclectic theoretical lens, this article critically analyses forms, nature and implications of social injustices in the university education system in Zimbabwe so as to facilitate ameliorative engagement with such issues in policy contexts. The paper argues that university spaces and curricula in Zimbabwe need to be fundamentally reconfigured in line with values of social justice so that the university experience can enable optimal flourishing of differently gendered, racialized and classed students.

The role of education in equality of opportunity and individual experience of social mobility in the Chinese context

Yiran Zhao
University of Cambridge, UK

The rise of neoliberalism in the West in late 1970s has helped entrench the politics of aspirations and individualism. During the same time, China underwent economic reform led by Deng Xiaoping. The growing autonomy in the market gave rise to increasing amount of social stratifications in society, reflected in terms of the inequalities in economic, social and cultural resources. In order to achieve better life outcomes, Chinese people are driven to move up the social ladder, primarily through investment in education. This study empirically analyses the role of education in promoting equality of opportunities and outcomes in the Chinese context. With data drawn from the 2012 Chinese General Social Survey, regression analyses are used to evaluate the impact of educational level on change in self-perceived social status. This subjective measure is argued to be a stronger indicator for one's experience of social mobility than instruments developed in Western contexts, such as the occupational status by Blau and Dancun and the class classification measure by Goldthorpe and his colleagues. By accounting for contextually specific factors such as Guanxi (social capitals) and Hukou (rural-urban divide), this paper also evaluates their implicit and explicit influence on facilitating or undermining the impact of education on social mobility. Moreover, this study addresses an underexplored topic in the Chinese context, i.e. the emotional costs associated with the overemphasis on thriving in a competitive society by "overcoming" one's social origin. By drawing from Bourdieu's analysis of the hysteresis effect and making connections with the deeply rooted structural inequalities, this paper calls for rising attention on the emotional wellbeing of highly educated but socially immobile people.

Beyond equal access: China Scholarship Council and the position of non-ODA countries in higher education provision towards SDG 4

Tingting Yuan
Bath Spa University

This paper is looking at the SDG Goal 4 and one of the means of implementation – scholarship, by investigating the role of China Scholarship Council (CSC) and its contribution to the country's international position and development strategy.

In the area of vocational and higher education, the SDG Goal 4 targets on the equality (- equal access especially gender equality) rather than the equity and quality (- the distribution of resource and the outcomes). 'Scholarship' as one of the three means of implementation, would be evaluated through the 'volume of official development assistance flows for scholarships by sector and type of study'. As only count ODA countries such as Australia, France and Japan which are seen as the largest contributors, there is a blank space for us to think about the contribution of the non-ODA countries and the possibilities of a more mutual and effective model of the popularisation of higher education.

As both of an importer and exporter, China has made huge effort on its scholarship system in the last decade. The China Scholarship Council (CSC) is now playing the key role dealing with all of the scholarship application for domestic and oversea applicants as well as related international affairs and has such a unique role among Chinese government, Chinese local authorities, Chinese universities, foreign embassies and foreign universities. It provides more than six types of Chinese scholarships to foreign applicants and also provide different levels of scholarships for Chinese students and researchers to study abroad. By looking at the system, function and the service of CSC, it is hoped to find some implications to the achievement of SDG 4 and the contribution of the non-ODA countries in the knowledge transformation, particular the knowledge of non-Westernised development, within the post-2015 era.

Accountability for gender equality in education: developing an innovative indicator framework for the SDGs

Helen Longlands
UCL Institute of Education, University College London, UK

Elaine Unterhalter, UCL Institute of Education
Rosie Peppin Vaughan , UCL Institute of Education

The paper reports on initial attempts to develop an innovative indicator framework for gender equality in education linked with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which is to be reviewed through critical participatory discussion at local, national and international levels. The paper situates this initiative (a collaboration with colleagues in the UK, South Africa, Malawi, and selected UN organisations) within the debate about the strengths and weaknesses of metrics and indicators to convey information about complex processes of inequalities. It outlines some of the institutional resources the development of these indicators require, and poses questions regarding the opportunities metrics and indicators present for stakeholders to engage with accountability processes concerning education, equalities and rights. The harsh critique of metrics inserting forms of distancing, distortion, and deformations of democratisation are placed against the arguments of those who see the development of alternative metrics around equalities as helping take debates around social justice to new terrains and concerns. The paper reviews the strengths and limitations of the gender parity indicators in SDG4, as well as the way SDG4.7 is to be measured according to discussions in the IAEG (the Inter-Agency Expert Group on SDG Indicators).

Agency, education and social justice in contexts of migration: What this may mean for Sustainable Development Goals

Faith Mkwananzi
University of the Free State, South Africa

As migration intensifies globally, facets of human development such as health, education, well-being, hunger, poverty and gender disparities remain issues of concern. As a result, social justice efforts, and the realisation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) become constrained. As such, attempts to address any of issues justice or sustainable development have direct and/or indirect implication on each other. Based on the findings of a case study on "Lives and educational aspirations of marginalised migrant youth" living in Johannesburg, South Africa conducted between 2014 and 2016, this paper provides a multidisciplinary conceptualisation of social justice and human development as critical elements of sustainable development. Using first-hand accounts of 12 marginalised Zimbabwean migrant youth who completed their O'level education in South Africa, the paper illustrates how an informal schooling system designed specifically for refugee minors created space for the advancement of young migrant's multiple capabilities and well-being. In the same vein, the paper demonstrates how, through individual and group agency, education can potentially be used as a tool to address injustices and promote human and ultimately sustainable development. Drawing on Amartya Sens capability concept of agency, complemented by a theorisation of oppression (powerlessness, violence, exploitation, marginalisation and cultural imperialism) by Iris Young to understand social justice, I argue that fostering educational capabilities could potentially contribute to addressing wider issues of social justice in developing countries. To conclude, I demonstrate how the juxtaposition of empirical lives, and a multidisciplinary theorisation of human development and social justice provides an understanding of the potential role of education in response to recent global issues of concern, such as migration;thus creating spaces for on-going dialogue on the potential contribution of education for sustainable development.

Reimagining the current policy of decentralisation in Benin: the perspectives of teachers, parents and education officials

Eva Bulgrin
University of Sussex, United Kingdom

Beginning 1990, Benin followed the international trend to decentralise its governance system. In the 2009 policy, the government of Benin articulated the need to devolve and de-concentrate pre- and primary education, among other sectors. While the Incheon Declaration of the World Education Forum 2015 (UNESCO, 2015, p. 4) points out the importance of 'legal and policy frameworks that promote [...] participatory governance', the Sustainable Development Goals no longer explicitly address good governance. The question of how to achieve 'free, equitable and quality primary [...] education' (target 4.1.) in the decentralised context of Benin through an appropriate institutional setting remains central to my research.

My research explores the context of influences as it relates to educational decentralisation, the context of policy production and the context of practice(s) (Ball, 1993). This paper draws on 70 extensive bilateral and group interviews with high and middle-ranking officials from different Beninese ministries, town councils, and school actors. My findings suggest that centralisation rather than decentralisation is becoming prevalent despite advocacy by International Organisations in favour for decentralisation.

In this context, this paper focuses on how various actors at different levels involved in delivering pre- and primary education mediate the decentralisation policy. In particular, the paper explores their vision for 'free, equitable and quality primary [...] education' (target 4.1.) in the context of the current policy framework. It argues that the aspirations of the population conflict with the political will of high-ranking education officials. By giving voice to my research participants, this paper sheds light on alternative narratives about how the governance of pre- and primary education in Benin can be reimagined. By doing so, it contributes to the understanding of how participatory governance may support the target of quality education.

The motivation of pre-primary teachers in developing countries from an inclusion and equity perspective

Purna Kumar Shrestha
VSO International, UK

To achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4 targets, the world will need to increase the supply of teachers, especially in developing countries and small island developing states. Teacher motivation is a key factor for increasing the supply of qualified teachers. However, in many countries, teacher motivation is reported to be low. The reasons for teachers' low motivation are varied. Less is known about the factors affecting teacher motivation in the pre-primary education sector.

Pre-primary teachers suffer from poorer prestige than primary and secondary teachers. Teachers at the pre-primary level are overwhelmingly female and in many countries, do not receive any formal educational training. Even less is known about the motivation of pre-primary teachers from an inclusion and equity perspective. Do male teachers face barriers to becoming pre-primary teachers? Is pre-primary teaching force representative of the ethnic and social diversity in the country? Do governments have a policy to facilitate the training of teachers with special needs?

International Task Force on Teachers for Education 2030/UNESCO and VSO International commissioned participatory action research in Cambodia and Rwanda to have a better understanding of the current state and challenges that affect the motivation of pre-primary teachers in developing countries from an inclusion and equity perspective. The paper presents the views of pre-primary teachers and stakeholders with regards to factors that affect the motivation of pre-primary teachers and their recommendations how to increase the supply of pre- primary teachers , how to keep teachers motivated to remain in the profession and how to make pre-teaching force representative of the ethnic, linguistic and social diversity in the country.

Challenging International Development Cooperation in Higher Education in Cape Verde

Sílvia Azevedo
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of the University of Porto, Portugal

Maria Brandão and António Magalhães Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of the University of Porto

This paper aims to explore how development is construed in the discursive field of International Development Cooperation (IDC) in Higher Education (HE) in Cape Verde.Under a globalized range of international agendas/policies different interpretations and practices have reconfigured the discursive field of IDC. Supranational and transnational organizations have been the privileged actors in setting priorities, strategies and policies, raising the question about the kind of ideological effects and about national development agendas. Since 2000 that HE in developing countries has been determinant for the economic and societal development (WB, UNESCO, 2000) and internationalization through knowledge circulation, a crucial factor for those countries who want to participate in a globalized world (Beerkens, 2004). Despite the fact that in Cape Verde the first public university was established in 2006, IDC has always played a key role in the development of HEI.

The analysis draws on Political Discourse Theory as theorical-methodological framework (Laclau & Mouffe, 1985;Howarth, 2000). It focuses on articulation practice to identify and describe discourses that fixate the meaning of development in IDC in HE. A corpus of ten in depth interviews with political actors of cooperation between HEIs in Portugal and Cape Verde and documents were analysed.

Accordingly, we propose that the discursive struggle between the fixation of meaning of development by reference to external (hegemonic) forces and fixation of meaning of development by reference to national identities point out to two development cooperation discourses, a discourse by resistance and a discourse by accommodation. This open a debate on the role of knowledge production in HEI in developing countries to support sustainable IDC.

The articulation of the relationship between education and development in the global policies

Asma Jahan Mukta
The University of Newcastle, Australia

Principal Supervisor: Tom Griffiths, Associate Professor, The University of Newcastle
Co-Supervisor: Dr Heather Sharp, Senior Lecturer, The University of Newcastle

The principles of the United Nations and UNESCO have a great impact on global agendas for national development, and education is often expected to play a leading role for poverty reduction. This reflects a broader policy context globally that tends to emphasise a narrow concept of development, focused primarily on measurable economic growth, and de-emphasising other aspects of social and cultural change that education can promote. The critical question is how education can contribute to reducing poverty and delivering social, cultural and economic development for all people. Clearly, the complex relationship between education and development needs further exploration. This paper critiques how the notion of education is constructed in the global policies of education and development in terms of delivering national development. Using discourse analytic approach, this paper examines how multilateral agencies have articulated the relationship between education and development in the global policies for Least Developed Countries since 1990. More particularly, how the official links between school education and development, which includes expected outcomes of school education in relation to development is imagined directly or indirectly in the policy is the core interest of the paper. In what ways the dominant global logic of expanded mass schooling for individual upward mobility and national development reflected in global policy is discussed critically.

Exploring Global Discourses and Local Women’s Narratives on Education and Development in Nepal

Alba Castellsagué
Universitat Autònoma of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain

Silvia Carrasco, Universitat Autònoma of Barcelona

Development in Nepal is an ineludible issue, deeply imbricated in both discourses and practices (Fujikura 2001;Pigg 1993;Shrestha 1995). Starting from the colonial influence from the British Empire, through its 'opening' in the 50's and 60's to the international "agents of development", until becoming nowadays one of the most prioritized countries for international aid intervention worldwide.

Education emerges as the main ingredient on both development discourses and practices, and it particularly applies to the situation of girls and women, through programs targeting the promotion of access to schooling in the rural areas of the country (Robinson-Pant 2000). This paper explores the discursive construction of development and education categories in Nepal, through the analysis of narratives of 10 Nepali women, from rural and urban spots. We identify common trends and singularities in the way they describe their lived realities, focusing on education and development.

Findings show narratives that are clearly intertwined, where education appears to be closely linked to development. Both are conceptualized as external and dichotomic, and women apparently situate themselves as passive recipients. Predominant narratives mainly refer to material issues, but some women's views bring about political, personal or social issues and dimensions. Methodological challenges also arise concerning the limitations of approaches based on interviews when exploring narratives and the need to situate them within a wider ethnographic context.

The paper shows how global and institutional discourses are assumed and internalized by the people, as outcomes of cognitive imperialism (Battiste 2005). However, it also reveals how women negotiate, re-signify and challenge such discourses from their particular local realities and experiences as active producers of meaningful cultural forms.

Decision making about the choice of study: drivers for Ecuadorian student prospects when choosing a higher education programme

Julio Rivadeneira-Barreiro
University of York, United Kingdom

This mixed methods study aims to understand how government policy on higher education (HE) has influenced major choice at two public Ecuadorian universities. Giddens' (1984) Structuration Theory is used to understand how structure (HE policy) has influenced agency (student prospects and access to desired majors). This paper presents findings on two research questions to understand the extent to which the Ecuadorian government's message about the importance of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) subjects has influenced major choice of current Ecuadorian undergraduates (RQ1), and their motivations for major choice (RQ2). 128 first-year undergraduates (Arts and STEM university) completed an online survey on their motivations for major choice, and further exploration was done by interviewing 43 survey respondents. Data were analysed using SPSS and NVivo software. The survey results suggest that government policy was not the main influence of subject selection since the majority of respondents mentioned that government message had no influence in major choice. Nevertheless, from those who mentioned an influence, STEM students were almost twice as likely to report that government messages had influenced their decision. This may suggest that government assertions on the importance of STEM to the production matrix of Ecuador have yielded some influence on current students. Regarding main motivations, there is some consensus across subject areas and institutions. Relatives, friends and teachers were the main sources of influence. Lecturers' academic profile and major uniqueness were mentioned by more STEM participants, while free-of-charge education was mentioned by more Arts respondents. Implications for HE policy makers will be discussed;with consideration of how a change in the paradigm that guides HE, from economic value to wellbeing creation, causes a change in the agency of HE prospects to pursue their wished majors.

Keywords: Buen Vivir, career decision-making, higher education, government message, change of the production matrix, STEM, mixed methods.
Intersectional inequalities and social exclusion

The impact of the financial crisis on students’ health and wellbeing: A review study in Greece

Dimitra Spyropoulou
PhD Student, Department of Educational Sciences and Early Childhood Education, University of Patras, Greece

Amalia A. Ifanti, Professor of Educational Planning and Policy, Department of Educational Sciences and Early Childhood Education, University of Patras, Greece

Financial crisis and austerity measures in Greece impact on students' health and attitudes. Additionally, during their studies, students may live far from their families and they may go through difficult problems. The university's role is to promote health and create a sustainable and healthy learning and living environment for their students. This goal will be achieved through the policies for health promotion, which are developed in universities. Factors such as anxiety and lifestyle, economic problems and academic obligations may hinder students from adopting universities' health promotion policies. However, each student has his/her own personality and social background, which affects the way he/she adopts these policies. Students' age, gender, socioeconomic status, social capital are some of the factors which may influence them.
The purpose of this review paper is to explore the effects of economic crisis on students' health and wellbeing. In particular, we aim to explore the available data about the impact the financial crises has on students' health and wellbeing and to present the Greek universities' health promotion policies in order to promote their students' health and wellbeing.
Summing up, it is widely known that Greece is affected more than any other country in Europe by the financial crisis. Job insecurity, income decrease and poverty are among the most common consequences of crisis in the students' life. The raise of unemployment in Greece is a problem that creates insecurity in students' life. This situation creates anxiety and unhappiness for students and affects their health and wellbeing. Therefore, it is necessary that universities foster health promotion policies in order to improve their students' quality of life and wellbeing.

The accreditation of undergraduate courses as priority in the regional agenda for educational public policies in MERCOSUR

Gabriella de Camargo Hizume
University of São Paulo, Brazil

Afrânio Mendes Catani, Univeristy of São Paulo

MERCOSUR is a South American regional organization created in 1991, originally formed by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. In spite of its economic features, education was a concern since the first regional initiatives and the Educational Sector was formed in its first year. The circulation of academic staff and degree holder professionals was considered a priority theme in the Educational Sector due to conceptions related to some main ideas, for instance: higher education as a human right, the social and economic development related to higher levels of education, the globalization process and the consequent internationalization of higher education. To promote this, a Working Group integrated by specialists from the participating countries understood that the first step would be the equivalence between the diplomas and the creation of a regional accreditation system for quality assurance. In 2002, after some adjustments, the final version of an experimental system, titled "Experimental Mechanism for Accreditation of Undergraduate Courses for the Recognition of Diplomas in MERCOSUR, Bolivia and Chile (MEXA)", was presented for three careers: agronomy, engineering and medicine. The MEXA was based on a self-evaluation, a peer evaluation, and an accreditation dictate. To implement the MEXA, each participating state indicated a National Accreditation Agency that established the National Accreditation Agencies Network, linked to the Educational Sector of MERCOSUR, to coordinate the process. It was applied from 2003 to 2006 and considered as a regional public policy to be taken as a priority to higher education. In 2008, a permanent system was set up, the Regional Accreditation System for undergraduate courses of MERCOSUR, a foundation for other programs like the Regional Mobility Program for accredited undergraduate courses and a mechanism for undergraduate diploma recognition. Nowadays, the ARCU-SUR System is applied to ten careers in nine countries, although it isn´t consolidated as of yet.

University or Apprenticeship? Motivations for choice of pathway in qualifying as a Solicitor in England & Wales

Caroline Casey
University of York, United Kingdom

University or Apprenticeship? Motivations for choice of pathway in qualifying as a Solicitor in England & Wales
The study explores the stratification of opportunities to qualify into the Solicitors' profession in England and Wales, looking at the graduate route and the new Solicitor Apprenticeship route into Law, and how these are understood, experienced and negotiated by those from different backgrounds. The research is particularly interested in the experience of those from widening participation backgrounds (those typically underrepresented in the legal profession).

Purpose
The research aims to challenge the notion that widening of the bottleneck to qualification as a solicitor through the introduction of the degree apprenticeship route is closing the gap in access to the profession for those from underrepresented backgrounds.

An inductive approach has been adopted using thematic coding to analyse the motivations, experiences and perspectives of those seeking qualify as Solicitors. The study draws on the sociology of education and of the professions to inform the discussion.
This is an interesting and timely study as there are significant changes underway in the Solicitors' profession with the Solicitors' Qualifying Examination (SQE) due to replace the usual university pathway from 2020 – will this level the playing field on access or increase the role of choice of degree institution?

Findings
So far, preliminary findings based on 13 interviews suggest that the choice of pathway may be influenced by individuals' attitude towards risk with some viewing the apprenticeship as a guaranteed route to full qualification and therefore less risky, others held different views.
This is an under researched topic given that the Solicitor Apprenticeship was only introduced two years ago. As such, this research provides a unique insight into the perspectives of those seeking to qualify as solicitors in this new education and training regime, accessing their motivations for choosing the route followed and their experiences of it. A stratified sampling frame provides for useful comparisons to be drawn (Miles & Huberman, 1994, cited by Creswell & Poth, 2018).

Critical Pedagogy for Global Citizenship Education in EFL Classroom

Sihem Salem
PhD student in the Department of Education, York University, UK

Education plays a vital role in creating active global citizens. Higher education institutions are important sphere where students can be encouraged to take an active role in their global community and transform the actual reality. This can merely be attained through the implementation of participatory methods in English as a Foreign Language classrooms namely critical pedagogy. However, some English as a Foreign Language Classrooms are dominated by the use of the banking model of education which may result in creating passive conformist citizens who are less likely to engage in overcoming the existing global issues and attaining a more just and sustainable world. Accordingly, this research is being conducted primarily to explore how students in English as a Foreign Language Higher Education Institutions in the Algerian context are prepared for active global citizenship and to examine whether critical pedagogy is used by teachers to raise their students' critical consciousness and support them to challenge the status quo. This research is also an attempt to investigate teachers' and students' attitudes towards the importance of employing critical pedagogy for global citizenship in English as a Foreign Language Classrooms. Besides, this research is undertaken to identify the challenges encountered by teachers when trying to incorporate this educational approach in the teaching and learning process. To achieve these aims, a mixed-methods approach will be adopted through classroom observation, administering a questionnaire to students and conducting a semi-structured interview with teachers. The results of this study will mainly be addressed to the ministry of Higher education in Algeria to integrate global citizenship education in the curriculum.

The Use of Tangible Rewards for Motivating Students;Comparative Study of Japanese and Ghanaian Education Systems

Maiko Okuda
Hiroshima University, Japan

Bright K. Dey

Motivation for Learning is believed to have direct impacts on the Global inequalities in knowledge production and exchange. This makes motivation a critical element in promoting learning. However, there are still many teachers who prefer to use some forms of motivation techniques which may cause students or learners to be unmotivated. Such situations or conditions lead to the learners' reluctance to have a habit of learning and expressing themselves whether in or out of the classroom. In addition, the teaching technique also affects the learners' motivation when it is not interesting enough or when it is less interactive.
Many studies assert that verbal and tangible rewards used by teachers might decrease intrinsic motivation, while others claim that the use of rewards can have positive effects if used appropriately (Brophy 2010). Other studies also hold the belief that the level of the teachers' own motivation determines their choice and appropriate use of "tangible rewards" for motivating students (Hoffman 2008).
This research compared "the use of tangible rewards for motivating students" in the two countries;thus, Japan and Ghana. The research was conducted through interview consisting of specific content.
The sampling by interview and questioners for Elementary school teachers.
In analyzing the results, it was found that Education in Japan is high quality and the national GDP is also high, but the student performance averages (Motivation of learning) are low. On the other hand, Ghana's GDP is lower than Japan, but Motivation to learn is high. This means that there may be possibly different reasons for inequalities in knowledge and drop-out in the contexts of the two countries.
It was also found that encouraging learning through or with rewards is a basic teaching tactic (learning habits). The technique was quite effective in some schools to enhance students' motivation to learn although many students must still practice to study by themselves, especially when teachers limit the reward tool to "praise" only. Part of the tangible rewards must associate with the benefits of having an education. While students get a sense of accomplishment from rewards, some teachers have difficulty using rewards to motivate Grade 3 and Grade 4 students. Therefore, another study should be conducted using other techniques or the same technique should be applied in different classes to get and observe results.

Keywords: motivation, tangible rewards, Experience, GDP, Drop-out, learning

Returning from study abroad and continuing as a scholar: Stories of re-adjustment of foreign Ph.D. holders from Kazakhstan

Aliya Kuzhabekova, Aizhan Temerbayeva and Jason Sparks

How is female-led grassroots activism in a Colombian community education project increasing women’s political empowerment?

Vicky Hirst

The purpose of this study was to explore the female-led grassroots educational projects run by the 'League of Displaced Women' in their community on the north coast of Colombia. The women were displaced during the Colombian civil war and the study's aim was to establish how the community's educational projects are impacting the women's political empowerment, both within the community and in wider Colombian society. The community is situated near the tourist town of Cartagena, in a low socio-economic area, and the study focuses on how women are attempting to use education to challenge the existing socio-economic and political barriers to their political empowerment. It analyses the women's struggle within the conceptual framework of empowerment through education. Firstly, I consider empowerment as a broad concept, before investigating the distinctive features of women's empowerment and questions of gender. The study also locates the women's political empowerment within the context of the Colombian civil war and the recent peace negotiations. The women's varying motivations for wanting to either engage in, or lead, educational projects in the community are also analysed. The methodological approach is comprised of a rigorous literature review of empowerment through education, followed by nine semi-structured interviews carried out with a range of women and girls from the community. The findings indicate that there is a strong desire among the women and the youth to engage in the educational projects, and they also have a clear understanding of the purpose behind them. However, while the female-led, grassroots educational projects are increasing women's political empowerment within their community in various ways, they are not yet enhancing the women's control over their wider political environment. For these existing power relations to be challenged, and ultimately overcome, wider engagement between the female-led community and local, regional and national partners must be facilitated.

The effect of urban developments (2000-2015) on the urban environment of adolescents in the northeastern zone of Medellín, Colombia

Franziska von Blumenthal
UCL Institute of Education

This study explores the effect of social urban interventions on the neighbourhoods in the northeastern zone of Medellín and asks whether these effects can positively affect the environments of adolescents and keep them distanced from the illegal groups that continue to exert influence in the area. Educational infrastructure, transport services and upgrading projects sought to minimise the influence of criminal actors in the area and provide better opportunities to residents. Whilst homicide and violent crime rates have dropped, qualitative data measuring youth perceptions of safety, the neighbourhood and educational prospects does not exist. Adolescents participating in the study demonstrate little faith in formal authorities and institutions and express a complex relationship with illegal groups whose presence is described as a necessary evil. The interventions of Social Urbanism have done little to curb the influence of these groups and educational facilities have had limited success in supporting out of school learning, particularly after the closure of the Spain Library - an iconic feature of the social change the urban policies represented. Physical distance from the presence of illegal actors (in the case of students studying outside the neighbourhood) proved positive, with students demonstrating higher educational and life aspirations. The adolescents perceive the interventions necessary but also self-serving for the local government looking to promote and export the city's global brand. Strict and confusing behavioural codes within facilities and a continuous deficit in quality educational services drive questions as to whom the interventions serve and fuel mistrust amongst the adolescents who feel they are perceived as guilty until proven innocent. The blind conformity to behavioural rules in public spaces and facilities is perceived as not unlike the actions of the illegal groups, leading adolescents to navigate an environment in which they are simultaneously potential victims and perceived perpetrators.

Beyond Dependence: Reshaping Aid to Education for Sustainable Futures

Keith Lewin

Over the last three decades well over half a trillion dollars has been disbursed as aid to education through bilateral and multilateral agencies. New global campaigns seek to massively elevate levels of aid to education and quadruple its volume and transform education systems that have so far proved resistant to change. National investment has combined with external assistance to help some low income countries transform their education systems. In other countries progress has been disappointing raising the question as to whether more aid of the same kind will make a difference in future. Comparative educationists have an opportunity to give voice to their different experiences with development aid to identify those approaches that are more effective at accelerating sustainable educational development and which are likely to reduce long term aid dependence in the future.

Indigenous Peoples and Higher Education: Considering the issue from a human rights perspective

Keith Holmes, Mari Yasunaga, and Paz Portales

This round table discussion uses a human rights perspective to explore collectively how higher education could be reimagined to address the rights, needs and interests of Indigenous Peoples, in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

From a human rights perspective, education and indigenous peoples have been considered in two different and complementary aspects. On one hand, indigenous peoples are holders of the right to education as individuals and as a collective. As such, their cultural, spiritual, linguistic and traditional knowledge can be sustained through the means of an inclusive and participatory education. On the other hand, indigenous knowledge, skills and competences represent substantial pieces of human wisdom and heritage, which implies that Indigenous People should be key actors in the development of inclusive higher education policies, systems, institutions, programmes and practices.

Participants will have the opportunity to contribute to a new UNESCO initiative which aims to contribute to improving the access of Indigenous Peoples to inclusive and equitable quality and relevant higher education, recognizing that 'Indigenous Peoples' and 'Higher Education' are new elements featuring in global education agenda, SDG4-Education 2030. This initiative will compile and produce up-to-date information and knowledge from a comparative and international perspective and establish a network on Indigenous Peoples and Higher Education to act as a sounding board and a laboratory of ideas.

Research ethics in international and comparative education

Lizzi O. Milligan

Esther McMahon and Lizzi O. Milligan (University of Bath) will first present the findings from a survey with BAICE members about ethics in international and comparative education and put forward the key ethical principles that have emerged from this study. Lucy Atkinson (University of York) Qing Gu (University of Nottingham/BAICE) and ArathiSriprakash (University of Cambridge) will reflect on these principles related to their own research. The roundtable will then open up to a wider discussion of the ethical principles and the implications for BAICE. The roundtable will be chaired by Lizzi O. Milligan.