Hiroshima University, Japan
Bright K. Dey
Motivation for Learning is believed to have direct impacts on the Global inequalities in knowledge production and exchange. This makes motivation a critical element in promoting learning. However, there are still many teachers who prefer to use some forms of motivation techniques which may cause students or learners to be unmotivated. Such situations or conditions lead to the learners’ reluctance to have a habit of learning and expressing themselves whether in or out of the classroom. In addition, the teaching technique also affects the learners’ motivation when it is not interesting enough or when it is less interactive.
Many studies assert that verbal and tangible rewards used by teachers might decrease intrinsic motivation, while others claim that the use of rewards can have positive effects if used appropriately (Brophy 2010). Other studies also hold the belief that the level of the teachers’ own motivation determines their choice and appropriate use of “tangible rewards” for motivating students (Hoffman 2008).
This research compared “the use of tangible rewards for motivating students” in the two countries;thus, Japan and Ghana. The research was conducted through interview consisting of specific content.
The sampling by interview and questioners for Elementary school teachers.
In analyzing the results, it was found that Education in Japan is high quality and the national GDP is also high, but the student performance averages (Motivation of learning) are low. On the other hand, Ghana’s GDP is lower than Japan, but Motivation to learn is high. This means that there may be possibly different reasons for inequalities in knowledge and drop-out in the contexts of the two countries.
It was also found that encouraging learning through or with rewards is a basic teaching tactic (learning habits). The technique was quite effective in some schools to enhance students’ motivation to learn although many students must still practice to study by themselves, especially when teachers limit the reward tool to “praise” only. Part of the tangible rewards must associate with the benefits of having an education. While students get a sense of accomplishment from rewards, some teachers have difficulty using rewards to motivate Grade 3 and Grade 4 students. Therefore, another study should be conducted using other techniques or the same technique should be applied in different classes to get and observe results.
Keywords: motivation, tangible rewards, Experience, GDP, Drop-out, learning